Dr. Nicole Trenholme

Team member Dr. Nicole Trenholme


Dr. Nicole Trenholme, DVM, MS, DACVECC, DACVAA is the medical director at Evolution Veterinary Specialists (EVS). She is double-boarded in both Small Animal Emergency and Critical Care (SAECC) as well as Veterinary Anesthesia and Pain Management.  Following obtaining a bachelor’s in Biological Sciences at Colorado State University, she graduated from Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine, completing her clinical year at North Carolina State University (NCSU). She completed two internships, one at Friendship Hospital for Animals in Washington, DC before returning to NCSU for a specialty internship in SAECC. She then completed her SAECC residency and Masters in Biomedical Sciences at the University of Missouri followed by her Anesthesia residency at the University of Georgia. She then worked as an Assistant Professor at the University of Illinois prior to joining the EVS team, starting their critical care and anesthesia services and overseeing the emergency and specialty services. She has a special interest in endocrinopathies, anesthesia and pain management in critically ill patients, exotic anesthesia, and teaching.


Peer reviewed publications

  • Trenholme HN. Sedation and Anesthesia in Exotic Animal Critical Care. Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract. 2023 Sept; 26(3):591-622. https://10.1016/j.cvex.2023.05.003
  • Trenholme HN, Tynan B, Jackson M, Kerl M. Comparison of point-of-care NOVA CCX blood gas analyzer to laboratory analyzer in a population of healthy adult cats. J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio). 2022 Feb 15.  https://10.1111/vec.13155
  • Trenholme HN, Masseau I, and Reinero CA. Hirudotherapy (medicinal leeches) for treatment of upper airway obstruction in a dog. J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio). 2021 Sep;31(5):661-667. https://10.1111/vec.13094
  • Trenholme HN, Barletta M, Quandt JE, Reed RA, Kleine SA, and Hofmeister EH. Arterial oxygenation in anesthetized horses placed in a 5-degree reverse Trendelenburg position. Res Vet Sci. 2021 Mar;135:304-309.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2020.10.005
  • TrenholmeHN, SakaiDM, Craig HA, Torpy F, Reed RA. Evaluation of fast sequence intubation techniques in dogs in propofol induced anesthesia associated with rocuronium. Vet Anaesth Analg. 2023 in press.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaa.2023.11.004
  • TrenholmeHN, Reed RA, SakaiDM, HanafiAL, Berghaus LJ, Ryan CA, Banovic F, Quandt JE, Barletta M, and KnychHK. Immunological reactions of meperidine in horses. Front Vet Sci. 2020 Dec 23;7:584922.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.584922
  • Hanafi AL, Reed RA, Trenholme HN, Sakai DM, Ryan CA, BarlettaM, QuandtJE, and Knych H. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of meperidine in healthy horses. Vet Surg. 2021 Feb;50(2):410- 417. https://doi.org/10.1111/vsu.13545
  • Reed R, Trenholme HN, Skrzypczak H, Chang K, Ishikawa Y, Barletta M, Quandt J, Knych H, Sakai D. Comparison of hydromorphone and butorphanol for management of pain in equine patients undergoing elective arthroscopy: a randomized clinical trial. Vet Anaesth Analg. 2022 Sep;49(5):490-498. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaa.2022.05.006
  • Barletta M, Gordon J, Escobar A, Mitchell K, Trenholme HN, Grimes J, Jimenez-Andrade JM, Nahama A, Cisternas A. Safety and efficacy of intravesicular instillation of resiniferatoxin in healthy cats: a preliminary study. Front Vet Sci. 2023 Jan; 9:922305.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2022.922305
  • Sakai DM , Trenholme HN, Torphy F, Craig HA, Reed RA. Evaluation of electroencephalogram in awake, sedated, and anesthetized dogs. Res Vet Sci. 2023 Jun;159:66-71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2023.04.008

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